Impact Assessment

Impact Assessments of FFS at Kenya Tea Development Agency, 2011-2014

    The Kenya Tea Development Agency (KTDA) and Lipton Sustainable Agriculture Project introduced farmer field schools (FFS) in four pilot KTDA-managed factories in 2006. Based on the good results from the pilot phase, the partnership of KTDA, Unilever and IDH started their Sustainable Tea Program in 2009 with the aim to up-scale FFS to all 65 processing factories of the 54 KTDA tea factories. The up-scaling of FFS in this phase was mainly done through tea extension staff-led FFS (TESA-led FFS).

    In order to reach more farmers and buying centres of every KTDA processing plant, a new up-scaling phase has been launched in 2013 with selected FFS Graduate farmers helping in initiating and running farmer field school activities (Farmer-led FFS). LEI Wageningen UR conducted an impact study in 2012 of the TESA-led FFS. Now that the Farmer Field Schools (FFS) programme has been up-scaled and embedded within the entire KTDA factory and management system, KTDA, Unilever and IDH wished to evaluate their Sustainable Tea Program. They have commissioned LEI Wageningen UR to conduct a follow-up study on the impact of TESA-led FFS that started in 2009 and a baseline study on farmers taking part in farmer-led FFS that started at the end of 2013.

    Methods for info gathering
    These reports present the findings of impact assessments of the TESA-led FFS started in 2009 and the baseline situation of farmers taking part in farmer-led FFS started at the end of 2013. This baseline situation can be used in a future impact assessment to determine whether the farmer-led FFS approach is as effective as the TESA-led FFS approach.

    This report makes an important contribution to existing impact literature with the following features:
    • Multi-period impact assessment of a complex intervention like FFS with comprehensive outcome indicators, taking into account the dynamics of FFS participation over time
    • Theory-based evaluation aiming at verifying the impact logic of the KTDA-Unilever-IDH Sustainable Tea Programme
    • Semi-experimental design with attention to potential selection bias
    • Use of primary and secondary data from different sources for data triangulation and econometric analysis

    Summary of results
    Between 2010 and 2014, the TESA-led FFS have had positive impacts on both immediate and intermediate outcome indicators following the impact logic of the FFS programme. There is however need to address the potential self-selection bias of farmers trained, in a future impact assessment.